Here are the main types of immigration statuses:

thumb citizenCitizen
includes the right to vote and run for public office.
thumb permanentLegal Permanent Resident (Green card)
Allows someone to stay in the US and petition for certain family members.
thumb humanitarianHumanitarian Options
Depending on the situation in the US or the country of origin, options may be available.
thumb non immigrantNon-Immigrant Visas
There are a variety of non-immigrant visas including tourist, student and work visas.
thumb actionDeferred Action
A temporary relief from removal and employment authorization.
thumb undocumentedUndocumented
Someone that does not currently have a lawful immigration status in the US.